Authors: Lausch E, Janecke A, Bros M, et. al
Vertebral and metaphyseal dysplasia, spasticity with cerebral calcifications, and strong predisposition to autoimmune diseases are the hallmarks of the genetic disorder spondyloenchondrodysplasia. We mapped a locus in five consanguineous families to chromosome 19p13 and identified mutations in ACP5, which encodes tartrate-resistant phosphatase (TRAP), in 14 affected individuals and showed that these mutations abolish enzyme function in the serum and cells of affected individuals. Phosphorylated osteopontin, a protein involved in bone reabsorption and in immune regulation, accumulates in serum, urine and cells cultured from TRAP-deficient individuals. Case-derived dendritic cells exhibit an altered cytokine profile and are more potent than matched control cells in stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions. These findings shed new light on the role of osteopontin and its regulation by TRAP in the pathogenesis of common autoimmune disorders.
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase deficiency causes a bone dysplasia with autoimmunity and a type I interferon expression signature.
Authors: Briggs TA, Rice GI, Daly S, et. al
We studied ten individuals from eight families showing features consistent with the immuno-osseous dysplasia spondyloenchondrodysplasia. Of particular note was the diverse spectrum of autoimmune phenotypes observed in these individuals (cases), including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypothyroidism, inflammatory myositis, Raynaud's disease and vitiligo. Haplotype data indicated the disease gene to be on chromosome 19p13, and linkage analysis yielded a combined multipoint log(10) odds (LOD) score of 3.6. Sequencing of ACP5, encoding tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, identified biallelic mutations in each of the cases studied, and in vivo testing confirmed a loss of expressed protein. All eight cases assayed showed elevated serum interferon alpha activity, and gene expression profiling in whole blood defined a type I interferon signature. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized link between tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and interferon metabolism and highlight the importance of type I interferon in the genesis of autoimmunity.