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    The role of intracellular calcium phosphate in osteoblast-mediated bone apatite formation

    To better understand the relationship between intracellular and extracellular mineralization, the authors performed a sample-preparation method that preserved mineral, ions, and the extracellular matrix (ECM).  They then used nano-analytical electron microscopy techniques to examine osteoblasts in an in vitro model of bone formation. Using these methods they identified calcium phosphate both within osteoblast mitochondrial granules and intracellular vesicles that transported material to the ECM. Moreover, they observed calcium-containing vesicles conjoining mitochondria, which also contained calcium, suggesting a storage and transport mechanism.


    Boonrungsiman S, Gentleman E, Carzaniga R, Evans ND, McComb DW, Porter AE, Stevens MM

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